Gopinath Balakrish Nair, PhD, FNA, FASc, FNASc, FTWAS, FAAM

Professor/National Chair in Disease Biology


Gopinath Balakrish Nair
Gopinath Balakrish Nair

Gopinath Balakrish Nair, PhD, FNA, FASc, FNASc, FTWAS, FAAM

Professor/National Chair in Disease Biology


  • Profile

    • PhD (Marine Microbiology), Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, India
    • M.Sc. (Marine Biology), Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, India
    • B.Sc. (Zoology, Chemistry and Botany), Loyola College, Madras University, India
    • 2015, March: National Chair in Disease Biology, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Trivandrum
    • 2011, October: Executive Director, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, New Delhi
    • 2007, August: Director, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata
    • 2001, December: Director, Lab. Sciences Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh
    • 1996, December: Deputy Director, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata
    • 1993, July: Assistant Director, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata
    • 1988, July: Senior Research Officer, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata
    • 1982, October: Research Officer, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata
    • 1981, September: Asst. Research Officer, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata
    • Fellow of the National Academy of Sciences, Bangalore, India (2012)
    • Membership to the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina (2011)
    • Fellow of West Bengal Academy of Science and Technology (WAST) (2010)
    • Fellow of the Association of Microbiologists of India (FAMI) (2009)
    • Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology (FAAM) (2009)
    • Fellow of the Third World Academy of Sciences (renamed as The Academy of Sciences for the Developing Nations) (2004)
    • Fellow of the Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi (FNA) (2002)
    • Foreign Associate of the US National Academy of Sciences, USA (2002)
    • Fellow of the National Academy of Sciences, Allahabad, India (FNASc) (1995)
    • Member of the International Scientific Advisory Committee (ISAC) of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundations’s Global Health Enteric and Diarrheal Diseases (GH-EDD)
    • Member of the National Advisory Committee for Multidisciplinary Advanced Research Centre (MARC) to be established at Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry from 2011 to 2014
    • Member of the Diarrhoeal and Enteric Advisory Committee (DEVAC) of the World Health Organization from 2008 to 2010
    • Member of the Diarrhoeal Scientific Advisory Board of the Institute for One World Health (A non-profit pharmaceutical company), San Francisco, USA
    • Member of the Technical Advisory Board for Vaccine and Infectious Diseases research of Translational Health Science Technology Institute of DBT, New Delhi from 2008 onwards
    • Chairman of Immuno-biological Diagnostic kits Sectional Committee MHR-19 of the Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi from 2008 onwards
    • Member of Governing Body of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), New Delhi from 2008 to 2009
    • Member of the Sectional Committee-VIII (2009-2011) of the Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi
    • Adjunct Faculty Member of the Medical Education Unit of I.D. & B.G. Hospital, Kolkata from 2010 onwards
    • Adjunct Faculty to the Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine (IAIM), Bangalore
    • Delivered the Prof. V. Ramalingaswami Memorial Lecture (Tenth in Series) for the year 2011 on “The Inside Story of the Impoverished Gut” at Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore on 6th July, 2011.
    • Awarded Prof. J.V. Bhat Memorial Award at the ‘Prof. J.V. Bhat Memorial Oration 2009’ at Dr. TMA Pai Planetarium of Manipal Life Sciences Centre, Manipal University, Manipal on 3rd. March, 2009
    • Awarded J.B. Chatterjee Gold Medal at the J.B. Chatterjee Memorial Oration to commemorate the 37th Death Anniversary of Late Prof. J.B. Chatterjee at the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata on 28th February 2009.
    • Awarded Gold Medal on March 2, 1999 during the 3rd State Conference, Indian Association of Medical Microbiologists, West Bengal Chapter at the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Calcutta.
    • Awarded the Prof. S.C. Mahalanobis Memorial Award on January 5, 1998 from the Physiological Society of India and deliver the Memorial Oration at the Indian Science Congress at Hyderabad.
    • Awarded the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award for excellence in Medical Sciences for the year 1998.
    • Awarded Certificate of Merit in recognition and appreciation for outstanding contribution to Public Health Education for Vibrio cholerae and Cholera, March 1994 from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, USA.
    • Mentored 29 PhD’s till date

    Patents filed abroad

    1. Thungapathra, M.; Ghosh, A.; Sharma, C.; Gupta, N.; Ghosh, R.K.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Kole, H. and Nair, G.B.
    2. Thungapathra, M.; Ghosh, A.; Sharma, C.; Gupta, N.; Ghosh, R.K.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Kole, H. and Nair, G.B.
    3. Thungapathra, M.; Ghosh, A.; Sharma, C.; Gupta, N.; Ghosh, R.K.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Kole, H. and Nair, G.B.

    Patents filed in India

    1. Thungapathra, M.; Ghosh, A.; Sharma, C.; Gupta, N.; Ghosh, R.K.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Kole, H. and Nair, G.B.
      A PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF CHOLERA VACCINE (Patent application no. 2740DEL1996)
    2. Thungapathra, M.; Ghosh, A.; Sharma, C.; Gupta, N.; Ghosh, R.K.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Kole, H. and Nair, G.B.
  • Research

    Infectious enteric diseases, gastrointestinal microbiome in the context of Helicobacter pylori infection and severe acute malnutrition as well as virome in relation to different diseases.

    Bacterial and Viral Diseases

    Project-1: Helicobacter pylori and the gastro-intestinal microbiome

    The bacterium and our work

    Helicobacter pylori chronically infects >50% of the world population and ~80% of the Indian population. A significant portion of the H. pylori infected population develops duodenal or gastric ulcer (10%–20%), distal gastric adenocarcinoma (1%–2%), and gastric mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (<1%) and hence the bacterium is classified as type I carcinogen. Specific alleles of bacterial virulence genes like vacAs1 and the cagA were linked with diseases in Western and East-Asian countries. In stark contrast, our analyses, based on H. pylori strains isolated from gastric biopsies of West Bengal residents, revealed that the vacAs1 and the cagA are not associated with diseases, indicating other factors related to the pathogen and the host may contribute to disease progression. Our extensive analyses of the protein sequences revealed that the C-terminal ends of the CagAproteins have many discrete motifs that vary among strains and we have identified several unique CagA types. Moreover, by using the H. pylori multiplex PCR assay developed in our lab, RAPD DNA-fingerprinting and DNA sequence analyses, we have shown that one individual may become infected by multiple H. pylori strains.

    What Is Next?

    It is not clear why ~10-20% of the infected individuals develop H. pylori related diseases, while others don’t. Moreover, no virulence specific marker of H. pylori is identified for India. Finally, the information on the roles of co-existing other microorganisms (bacteria, virus etc) in disease progression is lacking. Advances in sequencing technology—so-called metagenomics (analyses of genomes without the need for culture)—now makes it possible to detect and analyze the genomes of all microbes collectively (microbiome) that inhabit in unusual locations (eg. gastric mucosa). Our present interest is to look into the roles of stomach and intestinal microbiomes using next-generation sequencing/ deep sequencing. These data and the results from the analyses of virulence associated genes, DNA-fingerprints, proteomics will give us insight to understand the factors that contribute to the progression of H. pylori related diseases.

    Project-2: Human virome

    Why Virome?

    The human virome is the viral component of the microbiome, which means it is the collection of all the viruses in human body.  Interestingly, information on human virome is significantly lesser in present literature as compared to the bacterial component. However, knowledge of human virome is of extreme importance since viruses are not only associated with many acute (eg. rotavirus) and chronic (eg. hepatitis B) illnesses, but also associated with cancers (eg. human papillomavirus), destruction of immune cells (eg. human immunodeficiency virus) and neuronal diseases (eg. rabies virus). Moreover, viruses are the most abundant infectious agents on our planet. They are capable of infecting every living creature (including human, animals, plants, fungi, protozoa, bacteria, etc) and altering the physiology of their hosts, which in turn is associated with human health. For example, only the CTX phage (a virus that does not infect human directly) infected Vibrio cholerae (a bacterium) strains can express the cholera toxin upon infection and are associated with pandemic spread of the human disease. 

    Challenges bring opportunities

    We know less about viruses because the viruses offer many challenges to the microbiome researchers, like—they do not have a genetic marker to look for, like the 16S rDNA in bacteria; they have either DNA or RNA as genetic material (for RNA, it can be single or double stranded and for the single stranded ones, it can be either positive or negative stranded, and even segmented or non-segmented); the genetic material can become integrated into the host chromosome etc., which collectively makes the genome analyses tricky. But these challenges are actually our opportunities to develop newer and better methods to understand the role of known and unknown viral infections in various human diseases (viral and bacterial infections, cancer etc.). Our present aim is to utilize our expertise in molecular and biochemical techniques of virology for establishing methodology for metagenomic analyses of virome and recognize their role in modulating different microflora (eg. skin, gut, blood, vagina etc.) and their combined significance in human health.  

    Project-3: Role of gut microbiome in malnutrition

    The blindingly obvious might not always be the truth. Malnutrition is traditionally believed to be caused by a lack of food and essential nutrients. However treating malnourished children with standardized food regimes does not ensure recovery and prevent relapse into going back to a malnourished state after completion of treatment. Increasing evidence based on studies of the human gut microbiome suggests that a ‘potentially bad’ assortment of microbes in the human gut can conspire with a nutrient poor diet to promote and perpetuate the variety of forms of malnutrition.

    Children are the most visible victims of undernutrition. Undernutrition encompassing stunting, wasting, fetal growth restriction, and deficiencies of micronutrients (vitamin A and zinc) along with suboptimum breastfeeding is attributable to 3•1 million child deaths annually or half of all child deaths in 2011 (Black et al., 2013). Child undernutrition is assessed by measuring height and weight and screening for clinical manifestations and biochemical markers. Indicators based on weight, height and age are compared to international standards and are most commonly used to assess the nutritional status of a population. Stunting (inadequate length/height for age) captures early chronic exposure to undernutrition; wasting (inadequate weight for height) captures acute undernutrition; underweight (inadequate weight for age) is a composite indicator that includes elements of stunting and wasting. A severely stunted child faces a four times higher risk of dying, and a severely wasted child is at a nine times higher risk (Black et al., 2008).
    Undernutrition magnifies the effect of every disease putting children at greater risk of dying from common infections, increasing the frequency and severity of such infections, and delayed recovery creating a potentially lethal cycle of worsening illness and deteriorating nutritional status.

    At the RGCB Microbiome laboratory we intend to design intricate gut microbiome related studies to understand the dynamics of the extensive population of these gut microbial passengers in the context of nutrient assimilation, immune dysfunction and further systemic contributions. Some primary focus areas of research on gut microbiome and malnutrition at the microbiome laboratory are listed below:

    • Understand geographic differences in the gut microbiome structure of malnourished and healthy children
    • Understanding the functional consequences of gut microbiome immaturity and dysbiosis on nutritional status
    • Studying interventions like probiotics or fecal transplantations in addition to nutritional therapy in suitable animal models to try and restore microbiome function in malnourished state
    • Use gut microbiome derived metabolomics profiles to device bacterial interventions to compensate for specific nutritional deficiencies


    • Black RE, Victora CG, Walker SP, Bhutta ZA, Christian P, de Onis M, Ezzati M, Grantham-McGregor S, Katz J, Martorell R, Uauy R; Maternal and Child Nutrition Study Group. 2013. Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet 382(9890):427-51.
    • Black RE, Allen LH, Bhutta ZA, Caulfield LE, de Onis M, Ezzati M, Mathers C, Rivera J; Maternal and Child Undernutrition Study Group. 2008. Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. Lancet 371(9608):243-60.

    Environmental enteropathy and infection of the gut in context of malnutrition and child health
    If we could only provide clean drinking water to all and ensure proper sanitation and hygiene, we would ensure the well-being and health of the entire human race. However many governments and health workers are finding this to be an insurmountable challenge despite their best efforts. Children in developing countries are constantly exposed to unhygienic environmental conditions and contaminated food and water resulting in a state known as environmental enteropathy (tropical enteropathy). It is a subclinical condition caused by constant fecal-oral contamination resulting in blunting of intestinal villi and intestinal inflammation. Tropical enteropathy is most common in developing countries of the tropics but absent in some tropical populations of high socio-economic status such as Qatar and Singapore. Tropical enteropathy has been shown to have slowly resolved in migrants relocating to developed nations with better hygiene conditions.

    There are a number of ailments associated with environmental enteropathy especially in children from developing countries although they might appear apparently healthy and asymptomatic and without any overt diarrhea. Small intestinal inflammation, reduced absorptive capacity (malabsorption), impaired gut immune function, growth faltering and increased intestinal permeability facilitating microbial translocation across the compromised intestinal barrier, leading to chronic systemic inflammation that may adversely impact health are usually consequences of environmental enteropathy. It is also believed to be the underlying reason for poor response to nutritional therapy for treatment of malnutrition and failure of oral vaccines in the developing world.

    Our work here at the microbiome laboratory will focus on understanding the dynamics of these constant exposure of beneficial gut microbes to enteric fecal pathogens. We will focus on understanding the role of overt known gut pathogens which sometimes have been shown to be surprisingly present in very low numbers in our gut without causing disease and a recently described class of microbes called pathobionts, in states of health and malnourishment. It is imperative that it is critical to correct these underlying pathological conditions like environmental enteropathy for successful implementation of nutritional therapy for treatment of malnutrition. We will try to understand the intricate networks of interaction between the gut microbes and these pathogens/pathobionts and the host-microbiome cross-talk in these states of environmental enteropathy. Our aim is to ultimately design therapies targeting the reestablishment of gut microbial homeostasis by disrupting networks of deleterious microbes and restoration of normal gut functioning.

  • Publications

    Over 500 publications in peer reviewed journals, 37 book chapters, 24 articles in proceedings and editorials and 8 books as editors.

    Publications 2011 – 2014

    1. Kar SK, Sah B, Patnaik B, Kim YH, Kerketta AS, Shin S, Rath SB, Ali M, Mogasale V, Khuntia HK, Bhattachan A, You YA, Puri MK, Lopez AL, Maskery B, Nair GB, Clemens JD, Wierzba TF. 2014. Mass vaccination with a new, less expensive oral cholera vaccine using public health infrastructure in India: the odisha model. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 8(2):e2629.
    2. Hajela N, Nair G.B, Ramakrishna B.S. & Ganguly NK. Probiotic foods: Can their increasing use in India ameliorate the burden of chronic lifestyle disorders? Indian J Med Res19-26.
    3. Senoh M, Ghosh-Banerjee J, Mizuno T, Shinoda S, Miyoshi SI, Hamabata T, Nair GB, Takeda Y. 2014. Isolation of viable but nonculturable Vibrio cholerae O1 from environmental water samples in Kolkata, India, in a culturable state. Microbiologyopen. [Epub ahead of print].
    4. Banerjee R, Das B, Nair GB, Basak S. 2014. Dynamics in genome evolution of Vibrio cholerae. Infection Genetics and Evolution 23C:32-41.
    5. Malla S, Dumre SP, Shakya G, Kansakar P, Rai B, Hossain A, Nair GB, Albert MJ, Sack D, Baker S, Rahman M. 2014. The challenges and successes of implementing a sustainable antimicrobial resistance surveillance programme in Nepal. BMC Public Health. 14(1):269.
    6. Ghosh TS, Gupta SS, Bhattacharya T, Yadav D, Barik A, Chowdhury A, Das B, Mande SS, Nair GB.2014. Gut Microbiomes of Indian Children of varying nutritional status. PLoS One. [Epub ahead of print].
    7. Kurakawa T, Kubota H, Tsuji H, Matsuda K, Takahashi T, Ramamurthy T, Nair GB, Takeda Y, Nomoto K.  2013. Intestinal Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli populations in Japanese adults demonstrated by the reverse transcription –quantitative PCR and the clone library analyses.  Journal of Microbiological Methods. 92 :213-219.
    8. You YA, Ali M, Kanungo S, Sah B, Manna B, Puri M, Nair GB, Bhattacharya SK, Deen JL, Lopez AL, Wierzba TF, Clemens J, Sur D. 2013.  Risk Map of Cholera Infection for Vaccine Deployment: The Eastern Kolkata Case. PLoS One. [Epub ahead of print].
    9. Mengel M, Mintz E, Nair GB, Gessner BD. 2013. Editorial Committee Introduction. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Suppl 1:S1-3.
    10. Dutta S, Guin S, Ghosh S, Pazhani GP, Rajendran K, Bhattacharya MK, Takeda Y, Nair GB, Ramamurthy T. 2013.Trends in the Prevalence of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli among Hospitalized Diarrheal Patients in Kolkata, India. PLoS One. 8 (2):e56068.
    11. Ali M, Sur D, You YA, Kanungo S, Sah B, Manna B, Puri M, Wierzba TF, Donner A, Nair GB, Bhattacharya SK, Dhingra MS, Deen JL, Lopez AL, Clemens J. 2013. Herd protection by a bivalent killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccine in the slums of kolkata, India. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 56(8):1123-31.
    12. Naha A, Chowdhury G, Ghosh-Banerjee J, Senoh M, Takahashi T, Ley B, ThriemerK, Deen J, Seidlein LV, Ali SM, Khatib A, Ramamurthy T, Nandy RK, Nair GB, Takeda Y, Mukhopadhyay AK. 2013. Molecular Characterization of High-Level-Cholera-Toxin-Producing El Tor Variant Vibrio cholerae Strains in the Zanzibar Archipelago of Tanzania. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 51(3):1040-5.
    13. Gupta SS, Nair GB, Arora NK, Ganguly NK, 2013. Vaccine development and deployment: Oppurtunities and challenges in India. Vaccine (31S). B43-B53.
    14. Octavia S, Salim A, Kurniawan J, Lam C, Leung Q, Ahsan S, Reeves RP, Nair GB, Lan R. 2013. Population structure and evolution of non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae by multilocus sequence typing. PLoS One 8(6):e65342
    15. Zaw MT, Yamasaki E, Yamamoto S, Nair GB, Kawamoto K, Kurazono H. 2013. Uropathogenic specific protein gene, highly distributed in extraintestinal uropathogenic Escherichia coli, encodes a new member of H-N-H nuclease superfamily. Gut Pathogens 5(1):13.
    16. Dutta D, Chowdhury G, Pazhani GP, Guin S, Dutta S, Ghosh S, Rajendran K, NandyRK, Mukhopadhyay AK, Bhattacharya MK, Mitra U, Takeda Y, Nair GB, Ramamurthy T. 2013. Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 serogroups and cholera-like diarrhea, Kolkata, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 19(3):464-7.
    17. Barman S, Koley H, Ramamurthy T, Chakrabarti MK, Shinoda S, Nair GB, Takeda Y. 2013. Protective immunity by oral immunization with heat-killed Shigella strains in a guinea pig colitis model. Microbiology and Immunology 57(11):762-71.
    18. You YA, Ali M, Kanungo S, Sah B, Manna B, Puri M, Nair GB, Bhattacharya SK,Convertino M, Deen JL, Lopez AL, Wierzba TF, Clemens J, Sur D. 2013. Risk map ofcholera infection for vaccine deployment: the eastern Kolkata case. PLoS One. 8(8):e71173.
    19. De R., Ghosh Banerjee J., Sen Gupta S., Nair GB. 2013. The role of Vibrio cholerae genotyping in Africa. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 208 Suppl 1:S32-8.
    20. Bhattacharya SK, Sur D, Ali M, Kanungo S, You YA, Manna B, Sah B, Niyogi SK,Park JK, Sarkar B, Puri MK, Kim DR, Deen JL, Holmgren J, Carbis R, Dhingra MS, Donner A, Nair GB, Lopez AL, Wierzba TF, Clemens JD. 2013. 5 year efficacy of a bivalent killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccine in Kolkata, India: a cluster-randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 13(12):1050-6.
    21. Ghosh TS, Gupta SS, Nair GB, Mande SS. 2013. In silico analysis of antibiotic resistance genes in the gut microflora of individuals from diverse geographies and age-groups. PLoS One. 8(12):e83823.
    22. Yamasaki E, Sakamoto R, Matsumoto T, Morimatsu F, Kurazono T, Hiroi T, Nair GB, Kurazono H. 2013. Development of an immunochromatographic test strip for detection of cholera toxin. BioMed Research International [Epub ahead of print].
    23. Sudha VB, Ganesan S, Pazhani GP, Ramamurthy T, Nair GB, and Venkatasubramanian P. 2012. Storing drinking water in copper-pots kills contaminating diarrhoeagenic bacteria. J Health Popul Nutr. 30:17-21.
    24. Deb A, Kanungo S, Deb M and Nair GB. 2012.  Impact of climate change on health and strategies for mitigation and adaptation. WHO South-East Asia Jounal of Pub Health.1:8-19.
    25. Sarkar BL, Kanungo S, Nair GB.  2012.   How endemic is cholera in India? Indian J Med Res. 135:246-8.
    26. Naha A, Pazhani GP, Ganguly M, Ghosh S, Ramamurthy T, Nandy RK, Nair GB, Takeda Y, Mukhopadhyay AK. 2012.  Development and evaluation of a PCR Assay for tracking the emergence and dissemination of Haitian variant ctxB in Vibrio cholerae O1 strains Isolated from Kolkata, India. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 50:1733-6.
    27. Hajela N, Nair GB, Abraham P, N K Ganguly. 2012. Health impact of probiotics-vision and opportunities. Gut Pathogens.4:1
    28. Chattopadhyay S, Patra R, Chatterjee R, De R, Alam J, Ramamurthy T, Chowdhury A, Nair GB, Berg E D, Mukhopadhyay AK . 2012.  Distinct repeat motifs at the C-terminal region of CagA of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from diseased patients and asymptomatic individials in West Bengal, India. Gut Pathogens 4(1):4.
    29. Isac SR, Nair GB, Singh DV. 2012. Purification and Characterization of Cytotoxin Produced by a Clinical Isolate of Vibrio cholerae O54 TV113. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology.167:809-23.
    30. Senoh M, Ghosh-Banerjee J, Ramamurthy T, Colwell RR, Miyoshi S, Nair GB, Takeda Y. 2012. Conversion of viable but nonculturable enteric bacteria to culturable by co-culture with eukaryotic cells. Microbiology and Immunology 56:342-5.
    31. Neogi SB, Islam MS, Nair GB, Yamasaki S, Lara RJ. 2012. Occurrence and distribution of plankton- associated and free living toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in a tropical estuary of a cholera endemic zone. Wetlands Ecology Management. 20:271-285.
    32. Patra R, Chattopadhyay S, De R, Ghosh P, Ganguly M, Chowdhury A, Ramamurthy T, Nair GB., Mukhopadhyay A.K. 2012. Multiple infection and microdiversity among Helicobacter pylori isolates in a single host in India. PLOS ONE. 7(8):e43370.
    33. Nair GB, Ramamurthy T, Sur D, Kurakawa T, Takahashi T, Nomoto K, Takeda Y 2012. Vibrio cholerae/mimicus in fecal microbiota of healthy children in cholera endemic urban slum setting in Kolkata, India. Microbiology and Immunology. 56(11):789-91.
    34. Kanungo S, Sur D, Ali M, You YA, Pal D, Manna B, Niyogi SK, Sarkar B,Bhattacharya SK, Clemens JD, Nair GB. 2012. Clinical, epidemiological, and spatial characteristics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus diarrhea and cholera in the urban slums of Kolkata, India. BMC Public Health. 12 (1):830.
    35. Chowdhury G, Pazhani GP., Dutta D, Guin S, Dutta S, Ghosh S, Izumiya H, Asakura M, Yamasaki S, Takeda Y, Arakawa E, Watanabe H, Mukhopadhyay A  K. , Bhattacharya M K. , Rajendren K, Nair GB, Ramamurthy T. 2012.  Vibrio fluvialis in patients with diarrhea, Kolkata, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases.18 (11): 1868-3.
    36. Sumi A, Rajendran K, Ramamurthy T, Krishnan T, Nair GB, Harigane K, Kobayashi N. 2012. Effect of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall on rotavirus infections in Kolkata, India. Epidemiol Infect. 141(8):1652-61.
    37. Lantagne D, Nair GB, Lanata CL, Cravioto A. 2012. The origin of cholera in Haiti.  Jounal of Disaster Research. 7:759-767.
    38. Banerjee, M., G. B. Nair and T. Ramamurthy. 2011. Phenotypic & genetic characterization of Bacillus cereus isolated from the acute diarrhoeal patients. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 133:88-95.
    39. Barman, S., R. Kumar, G. Chowdhury, D. R. Saha, T. Wajima, T. Hamabata, T. Ramamurthy, G. B. Nair, Y. Takeda, H. Koley.2011. A live noninvasive Shigella dysenteriae 1 strain induces homologous protective immunity in a guinea pig colitis model. Microbiology and Immunology. 55:683-93.
    40. Bhuiyan, N. A., S. Nusrin, M. Ansaruzzaman, A. Islam, M. Sultana, M. Alam, M.A. Islam, A. Cravioto, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, G. B. Nair, J.C. L.Mwasna, and H. P. Endtz. 2011. Genetic characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 strains isolated in Zambia during 1996–2004 possessing the unique VSP-II region of El Tor variant. Epidemiol. Infect. 140:510-8.
    41. Chen, Y., O. C. Stine, J. H. Badger, A. I. Gil, G. B. Nair, M. Nishibuchi and D. E. Fouts. 2011. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: serotype conversion and virulence.BMC Genomics 12: 294  
    42. Chowdhury, G., G. P. Pazhani, G. B. Nair, A. Ghosh and T. Ramamurthy. 2011. Transferable plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in association with extended-spectrum β-lactamases and fluroquinolone-acetylating aminoglycoside-6΄-N-acetyltransferase in clinical isolates of Vibrio fluvialis. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 38: 169–173.
    43. Deb, A. K., S. Kanungo, G. B. Nair, and J. P. Narain. 2011. The challenge of pneumonia & acute diarrhoea at global, regional & national levels: Time to refocus on a top most priority health problem.  Indian J. Med. Res. 133: 128-130.
    44. Ganguly, N. K., S. K. Bhattacharya, B. Sesikeran, G. B. Nair, B. S. Ramakrishna, H. P. Sachdev, V. K. Batish, A. S.  Kanagasabapathy, V. Muthuswamy, S. C.  Kathuria, V. M. Katoch, K. Satyanarayana, G. S.Toteja, M Rahi, S. Rao, M. K. Bhan, R. Kapur, R. Hemalatha. 2011. ICMR-DBT Guidelines for Evaluation of Probiotics in Food.Indian J Med Res. 134: 22-25.
    45. Ghosh, S., G. P. Pazhani, G. Chowdhury, S. Guin, S. Dutta, K. Rajendran, M. K. Bhattacharya, Y.  Takeda, S. K. Niyogi, G. B. Nair and T. Ramamurthy. 2011. Genetic characteristics and changing antimicrobial resistance among Shigella spp. isolated from hospitalized diarrhoeal patients in Kolkata, India.Journal of Medical Microbiology.60:1460-6
    46. Islam, M. S.,  Z. H. Mahmud, M. H. Uddin, K. Islam, M. Yunus, M. S. Islam, G. B. Nair, H. P. Endtz, and D. A. Sack. 2011. Purification of household water using a novel mixture reduces diarrhoeal disease in Matlab, Bangladesh.  Transaction of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 105: 341–345.
    47. Lara, R. J., S. B. Neogi, M. S. Islam, Z. H. Mahmud, S. Islam, D. Paul, B. B. Demoz, S. Yamasaki, G. B. Nair, G. Kattner. 2011. Vibrio cholerae in waters of the Sunderban mangrove: relationship with biogeochemical parameters and chitin in seston size fractions. Wetlands Ecol. Manage 19:109-119.
    48. Lindsay, B., T. Ramamurthy, S. S. Gupta, Y. Takeda, K. Rajendran, G. B. Nair and O. C. Stine. 2011. Diarrheagenic pathogens in polymicrobial infections. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 17: 606-611.
    49. Mutreja, A., D. W. Kim,Nicholas R. Thomson, Thomas R. Connor, J. H. Lee, S. Kariuki, Nicholas J. Croucher, S.   Y. Choi, S. R. Harris, M. Lebens, S. K. Niyogi, Eun Jin Kim, T. Ramamurthy,  J. Chun, James L. N. Wood, J. D.  Clemens, C. Czerkinsky, G. B. Nair, Jan Holmgren, Julian Parkhill and G. Dougan. 2011. Evidence for several waves of global transmission in the seventh cholera pandemic.  Nature. 477(7365):462-5.
    50. Nair GB. and Y. Takeda.2011. Dr. Sambhu Nath De: Unsung hero. Editorial. Indian J. Med. Res. 133: 127.
    51. Na-Ubol, M., P. Srimanote, M. Chongsa-nguan, N. Indrawattana, N. Sookrung, P. Tapchaisri, S. Yamazaki, L. Bodhidatta, B. Eampokalap, H. Kurazono, H. Hayashi, G. B. Nair, Y. Takeda & W. Chaicumpa. Hybrid & El Tor variant biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Thailand. Ind. J. Med. Res. 133: 387-394.
    52. Panda, S., K. K. Pati, M.K. Bhattacharya, H. Koley, S. Pahari and G. B. Nair. 2011. Rapid situation and response assessment of diarrhea outbreak in a coastal district following tropical cyclone AILA in India. Ind. J. Med. Res. 133: 395-400.
    53. Patra, R., S. Chattopadhyay, R. De, S. Datta, A. Chowdhury, T. Ramamurthy, G. B. Nair, D. E. Berg, and A. K. Mukhopadhyay. 2011. Intact cag pathogenicity island of Helicobacter pylori without disease association in Kolkata, India. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 301:293–302.
    54. Pazhani, G. P., S. Chakraborty, K. Fujihara, S. Yamasaki, A. Ghosh, G.B. Nair and T. Ramamurthy. 2011. QRDR mutations, efflux system & antimicrobial resistance genes in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from an outbreak of diarrhoea in Ahmedabad, India.  Indian J Med Res. 134: 214-223
    55. Sarkar, B.L., T. S. Bhowmick, M. Das, K. Rajendran, and G. B. Nair. 2011. Phage Types of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 in the past decade in India. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis., 64: 312-315.
    56. Sen Gupta S., M. H. Mohammed, T. S. Ghosh, S. Kanungo, G. B. Nair and S. Mande. 2011. Metagenome of the gut of a malnourished child. Gut Pathogens. 3:7.
    57. Sur D, B. Manna, S.K. Niyogi, T. Ramamurthy, A. Palit, K. Nomoto, T. Takahashi, T. Shima, H. Tsuji, T. Kurakawa, Y. Takeda, G. B. Nair, and S. K. Bhattacharya. 2011. Role of probiotic in preventing acute diarrhoea in children: a community-based, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled field trial in an urban slum. Epidemiol. Infect. 139: 919–926.
    58. Takahashi, E., H. Kobayashi, H. Yamanaka, G. B. Nair, Y. Takeda, S. Arimoto, T. Negishiand K. Okamoto. 2011. Inhibition of biosynthesis of metalloprotease of Aeromonas sobria by sodium chloride in the medium. Microbiology and Immunology55:60–65.
    59. Zahid M. S., Z. Waise, A. N. Ghosh, G. B. Nair, S. A. M. K Bashar, J. J. Mekalanos and S. M. Faruque. 2011. An experimental study of phage mediated bactericidal selection & emergence of the El Tor Vibrio cholerae. Indian J. Med. Res. 133: 218-224.
    60. Clemens J, Shin S, Sur D, Nair GB, Holmgren J. 2011.  New- generation vaccines against cholera.  Nature Review Gastroenterol Hepatol. 8:701-10.
    61. Sur D, Kanungo S, Sah B, Manna B, Ali M, Paisley AM, Niyogi SK, Park JK, Sarkar B, Puri MK, Kim DR, Deen JL, Holmgren J, Carbis R, Rao R, Nguyen TV, Han SH, Attridge S, Donner A, Ganguly NK, Bhattacharya SK, Nair GB, Clemens JD, Lopez AL. 2011.  Efficacy of a low-cost, inactivated whole-cell oral cholera vaccine: results from 3 years of follow-up of a randomized, controlled trail. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1289.
    62. Das M, Nandy RK, Bhowmick TS, Yamasaki S, Ghosh A, Nair GB, Sarkar BL. 2011. Vibrio cholerae Typing Phage N4: Genome Sequence and Its Relatedness to T7 Viral Supergroup. Intervirology. 55:185-93.
    63. Sinha A, Sengupta S, Guin S, Dutta S, Ghosh S, Mukherjee P, Mukhopadhyay AK, Ramamurthy T, Takeda Y, Kurakawa T, Nomoto K, Nair GB and Nandy RK. 2011.  Culture-independent real-time PCR reveals extensive polymicrobial infections in hospitalized diarrhea cases in Kolkata, India. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. (2):173-80.
    64. Nahar S, Sultana M, Nasar MN, Nair GB, Watanabe H, Ohnishi M, Yamamoto S, Endtz H, Cravoito A, Sack RB, Hasan NA, Sadique A, Huq A, Colwell RR and Alam M. 2011.  Role of shrimp chitin in the Ecology of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and Cholera Transmission. Frontiers in Microbiology.2:260.


    1. Faruque S. M. and G. B. Nair (Editors). 2008. Vibrio cholerae Genomics and Molecular Biology. Caister Academic Press, Norfolk, UK.
    2. Takeda, Y. and G. B. Nair (Editors) 2008. Role of Probiotics in intestinal milieu and disease management. Published by Yakult Danone India (P) Limited. India.
    3. Takeda, Y. and G. B. Nair (Editors) 2009. Evidence based health benefits of Probiotics. Published by Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
    4. Nair G. B. and Takeda Y. (Editors) 2010. Probiotic food in health and disease. Published by Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
    5. Nair G.B. and Takeda Y. (Editors) 2012. Health Impact of Probiotics Vision and Opportunities. Published by Elsevier, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.
    6. Ramakrishna B.S., Nair G.B. and Takeda Y (Editors) 2014. Probiotics in Prevention of Life style Disorders. Published by Elsevier, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.
    7. Nair, G.B. and Y. Takeda (Editors) 2014. Cholera Outbreaks. Springer (in press).

    Book Chapters

    1. Pal, S. C., B. K. Sircar, G. B. Nair and B. C. Deb. 1984. Epidemiology of bacterial diarrhoeal diseases in India with special reference to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections. In: Bacterial Diarrhoeal Disease, Eds. Y. Takeda and T. Miwatani. KTK Scientific Publishers, Tokyo, p. 65-73.
    2. Pal, S. C., G. B. Nair and B. C. Deb. 1985. Etiology and Epidemiology of acute diarrhoeal diseases in India. In: Infectious Diseases in the Young: Strategies for Control in Humans and animals, Ed. S. Tzipori. Elsevier Science Publishers, Netherlands, p. 73-79.
    3. Pal, A., T. Ramamurthy, T. Shimada, Y. Takeda, S.C. Pal and G.B. Nair. 1992. Comparison of the enterotoxic, cytotoxic and haemolytic potentials of Aeromonas species of clinical and environmental origin In: Recent Advances in Toxinology Research (Vol. 3) Eds. P. Gopalkrishnakone and C.K. Tan. Published by the Venom and Toxin Research Group, National University of Singapore. pp. 449-460.
    4. Nair, G. B. and Y. Takeda. 1994. Detection of toxins of Vibrio cholerae O1 and non-O1. In. Vibrio cholerae and Cholera: Molecular to Global Perspective. Eds. Wachsmuth, I.K., P. Blake and O. Olsvik. American Society of Microbiology, Washington, D.C., USA. pp 53-67
    5. Yamasaki, S., H. Kurazono, G. B. Nair and Y. Takeda. 1997. Evolution of a new clone of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype ElTor as evident from cellular DNA analysis by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. In: Cytokines, Cholera and the Gut. Ed. Gerald T. Keusch. IOS Press, Inc., VA, USA, pp. 219-226.
    6. Yoshino, K. I., T. Ramamurthy, K. Abe, Y. Ito, G. B. Nair, T. Kohsaka, Y. Shimonishi, and T. Takeda. 1997. Purification and characterization of a novel superantigen produced by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. In: Cytokines, Cholera and the Gut. Ed. Gerald T. Keusch, IOS Press, Inc., USA, pp. 257-263.
    7. Nair, G. B. and Y. Takeda. 1997. The heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins of Escherichia coli. In: Escherichia coli: Mechanisms of virulence. Ed. Max Sussman. Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom. pp. 237-256.
    8. Bhattacharya, S. K. and G. B. Nair. 1999. Cholera. In: Conn’s Current Therapy. Ed. R.E. Rakel, W.B. Saunders Company, Harcourt Brace and Company, pp. 74-77.
    9. Morris, J. G. and G. B. Nair. 1999. “Noncholera” Vibrio infections. In: Tropical Diseases: Principles pathogens and practice. Editors R.L. Guerrant, D.H. Walker and P.F. Weller. Published by Chrchill Livingstone, Harcourt Brace and Company, pp. 336-344.
    10. Takeda, T., K. Yoshino, T. Ramamurthy and G.B. Nair. 1999. Heat-stable enterotoxins of Vibrio and Yersinia species. In: The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins. Second Edition. Academic press, p. 545-556.
    11. Garg, P., A. Basu, T. Ramamurthy, C. Sharma, S. Maiti, A. Ghosh, S. K. Bhattacharya, Y. Takeda and G. B. Nair .1999. Emerging clones of Vibrio cholerae and multi-drug resistance. In: Multi drug Resistance in Emerging and Reemerging Diseases. Edited by R.C. Mahajan and A. Therwath, Indian National Science Academy. Pages 31-42.
    12. Bhattacharya, S. K., A. K. Deb and G. B. Nair. 1999. Enteric pathogens. In: National Report (1994-1999) of the Indian National Committee of the International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS). Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi. Pages 227-246.
    13. Ghosh, A., M. Thungapathra, C. Sharma, N. Gupta, R. K. Ghosh, A. Mukhopadhyay, H. Kole, and G. B. Nair. 2000. Efforts towards the development of oral cholera vaccines in India against the backdrop of global endeavours. In: Diarrhoeal Diseases Research Perspectives Ed. N. Appaji Rao and N.K. Ganguly, Indian National Science Academy, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi; Pages 1-16.
    14. Morris, G. J., Jr., and G. B. Nair. 2001. “Non-cholera” Vibrio infections. In: Essentials of Tropical Infectious Diseases. Ed. Richard L. Guerrant, David H. Walker and Peter F. Weller. Churchill Livingstone, New York. Pages 167-169.
    15. Cimolai, N., G. B. Nair, Y. Takeda and L. R. Trabulsi. 2001. Enterobacteriaceae and Enteric Infections. In: Laboratory Diagnosis of Bacterial infections. Ed. Nevio Cimolai. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York. Pages 423-497.
    16. Nair, G. B., J. Batram, A. H. Havelaar and J. Jacob. 2002. Vibrio cholerae. In: Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (Second Edition). Addendum Microbial agents in Drinking Water. World Health Organization. Pages, 119-142.
    17. Nair, G. B., T. Ramamurthy, S. K. Bhattacharya, R. K. Ghosh, M. Thungapathra and A. Ghosh. 2002. The development and value of cholera vaccines. In: Trends in Malaria and Vaccine Research: The current Indian scenario. Eds. D. Raghunath and R. Nayak. Tata McGraw­-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, India. Pages 163-173.
    18. Bhattacharya, S. K. and G. B. Nair. 2003. Cholera. In: Clinical Immunology, Ed. P.C. Sengupta. Oxford University Press. Pages, 1049-1056.
    19. Uma, G., T. Ramamurthy, S. K. Bhattacharya and G. B. Nair. 2003. Cholera: Current knowledge in the genetics of Vibrio cholerae. In: Diarrhoeal Diseases: Current Status, Research Trends and Field Studies. Eds. D. Raghunath and R. Nayak. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi. Pages, 57-70.
    20. Nair, G.B. and D. A. Sack. 2004. Vibrios. In: Infectious Diseases, Third Edition, Eds S.L. Gorbach, J.G. Bartlett and N.R. Backlow. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, USA. Pages 1693-1697.
    21. Nair, G. B, S. M. Faruque, P. Garg, T. Ramamurthy and Y. Takeda. 2004. Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae: masquerade of a deceptive pathogen. In: Ecological Destruction, Health and Development: Advancing Asian Paradigms. Kyoto University Press, Japan. Pages 231-250.
    22. Colwell, R.R., S. M. Faruque and G. B. Nair. 2004. Free-living to freewheeling: The evolution of Vibrio cholerae from innocence to infamy.  In: Infectious Disease and host-pathogen evolution.  Ed. Krishna R. Dronamraju. Cambridge University Press. Pages198-221.
    23. Qadri, F., N. Roy Chowdhury, Y. Takeda, and G. B. Nair. 2005. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, seafood safety and associations with higher organisms. In: Oceans and Health: Pathogens in the Marine Environment. Edited by Shimshon Belkin and Rita R. Colwell, Springer, New York, USA, pages 277-295.
    24. De. K., R. K. Nandy and G. B. Nair. 2005. Microbiological and molecular methods to identify and characterize toxigenic Vibrio cholerae from food samples. In: Methods in Biotechnology, Vol. 21: Food-borne Pathogens: Methods and Protocols. Edited by: Catherine C. Adley. Humana Press Inc. Totowa, NJ, USA. Pages 99-124.
    25. Faruque, S.M. and G.B. Nair. 2006. Epidemiology. In: The Biology of Vibrios. Edited by F.L. Thompson et al., ASM Press, Washington, D.C., USA. Pages 385-398.
    26. Morris, G. J., Jr., and G. B. Nair. 2006. “Non-cholera” Vibrio infections. In: Tropical Infectious Diseases Principles, Pathogens and Practice (Second Edition). Eds. Richard L. Guerrant, David H. Walker and Peter F. Weller. Churchill Livingstone – ELSEVIER, New York. Pages 283-291.
    27. Nair, G. B., S. M. Faruque and D. A. Sack. 2006. Vibrios. In: Emerging foodborne pathogens. Edited by Yasmine Motarjemi and Martin Adams. Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge, England. Pages 332-372.
    28. Huq, A., C. Grimm, R. R. Colwell and G.B. Nair. 2006. Detection, isolation and identification of Vibrio cholerae from the environment. In: Coico R, Kowalik T, Quarles J, Stevenson B, Taylor R, editors. Current Protocols in Microbiology. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Pages 6A.5.1-38.
    29. Ramamurthy T. and G. B. Nair. 2006. Foodborne pathogenic Vibrios. In: Simjee, S. Infectious Disease: Foodborne Diseases. Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ., Pages 113-154.
    30. Nair G. B., A. K. Mukhopadhyay, A. Safa and Y. Takeda. 2008. Emerging hybrid variants of Vibrio cholerae O1. In: Vibrio cholerae Genomics and Molecular Biology, Edited by S.M. Faruque and G.B. Nair. Caister Academic Press, Norfolk, UK. Pages 179-190.
    31. Lara, R.J., Islam, M.S., Yamasaki, S., Neogi, S.B., Nair G.B. 2010. Aquatic ecosystems, human health and ecohydrology. In: Vol. 10 “Ecohydrology and restoration”, L. Chícharo, M. Zalewski (vol. eds.). Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science, E. Wolanski, D. McLusky (eds). Elsevier, Amsterdam.
    32. Das B. and Nair G.B. 2011. The Genomics of Cholera. In ‘Genomics Application for the Developing (Editor: Karen E. Nelson) Springer publication, USA .Pages 21-38.
    33. Nair G.B., Neerja H., Ramamurthy T., and Y. Takeda 2012. Probiotics and Diarrhea in low and middle –income countries. (Editors : Nair GB and Y. Takeda) Elsevier, Delhi.  Pages 36-47.
    34. Ramamurthy T. Mukhopadhyay AK, Nandy RK, Nair GB, 2013.  Molecular typing of Vibrio cholerae: Imprints in the Epidemiology of Cholera. (Editors: Filippis and M.L. McKee) Springer, New York. Pages 53-72.
    35. Ramamurthy T, and Nair G.B. 2014 Bacteria: Vibrio cholerae. In: Motarjemi Y. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Volume 1, Pages 546-554. Waltham, MA: Academic Press.
    36. Ramamurthy T, and Nair G.B. 2014 Bacteria: Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In: Motarjemi Y. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Volume 1, Pages 555-563. Waltham, MA: Academic Press.
    37. Palit A, and Nair G.B. 2014 Bacteria: Other Vibrios. In: Matarjemi Y. (ed) Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Volume 1, Pages 570-573. Waltham, MA: Academic Press
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