Profile

Research

Publications

Team

Alumni

Sanil George, PhD

Scientist E-I

+91-471-2529520

sgeorge@rgcb.res.in

sanil
  • Profile

    • PhD in Zoology – 1993 (Mahatma Gandhi University, Kerala)
    • 2012-till date: Scientist EI
    • 2006-2012: Scientist C
    • 2001-2006: Scientist B
    • 1995-2001: Research officer
    • 1993-1995: Research Assistant
    • 1992-1993: Research fellow
    • Member, Kerala Academy of Sciences
    • 08 research grants completed till December 2013.
    • 02 ongoing Research grants.
    • 3 ongoing PhD students

    Professional Training

    • Management of Freshwater Fish Seed Farms. CIFE, Bombay
    • Analysis of heavy metals and pesticide residues in water by using AAS and GLC. ITRC, Lucknow, India
    • DBT sponsored In-service Training programme in molecular biology for fishery scientists. 2002 April 1-2003 March 31, CIFT, Cochin
    • Training programme on DNA Fingerprinting at CDFD, Hyderabad, January 3-February 2, 2007
  • Research

    Molecular Ecology of amphibians of Western Ghats

    The broad overall aim of the research proposed in our lab is to investigate the genetic differentiation of local populations of the endemic amphibian populations of the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot. These goals will be targeted focusing on population genetics of the amphibians of the Western Ghats, India by developing novel microsatellite markers, we will investigate the genetic relationships and diversity among and between different populations and species in different parts of Western Ghats. Apart of seeking to identify genetically unique lineages and signatures indicative of genetic problems (i.e. inbreeding, loss of variability due to drift), we will also seek to resolve the phylogenetic (evolutionary) relationships between different taxa and populations with the aid of mt DNA sequence and microsatellite data. In addition, the degree of population differentiation attainable due to neutral evolutionary processes (i.e. drift, migration) as measured by FST-index in neutral microsatellite loci will be compared to the data generated from our Lab. This is will allow assessing the relative roles of genetic drift and natural selection as determinants of population differentiation in ancient endemic amphibians of Western Ghats.

    Host Defense peptides from frog skin secretions

    Co evolution with microbes in the habitat lead to the development of an array of host defense peptides in the skin secretion of frogs, which provide the first line of defense against invading microbes. Host defense peptides are secretary peptides that serve universally in all living organisms for both offensive and defensive purposes. They can rapidly kill a broad range of microbes and have additional activities that impact on the quality and effectiveness of innate responses and inflammation. Furthermore, the challenge of bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics and the unique mode of action of host defense peptides have made such peptides promising candidates for the development of a new class of antibiotics. The unique diverse function and architecture of these peptides has opened vistas in designing molecular template for new approaches and discoveries.

    Collaborators
    1. Dr. Joshy Jacob, Associate Professor, Emory University, USA
    2. Dr. Sabu Thomas, Scientist E-II, Cholera Biology, RGCB

    Completed

    1. Amphibian fauna of Pooyamkutty Hydroelectrioc Power Project site, Kerala. ( Funded by FRAWG, Minnessotta Zoo, USA (through Zoo Outreach organization, Coimbatore, India 1994-1995)
    2. Assessment of ecological and environmental risks in Kuttanad rice producing area and their abatement through application of biotechnology.(Funded by DBT, Govt. of India (As Collaborating scientist-1996-1999)
    3. Bioremediation of Xenobiotics- A molecular Approach (Funded by STEC, Govt. of Kerala1998-2000)
    4. Measuring and Monitoring Amphibian diversity of Kerala. (Funded by Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India -1999-2003)
    5. Measurement of Biological Diversity at species level- A molecular Approach (Funded by KSCSTE, Govt. of Kerala -2003-2006)
    6. DNA Barcoding of selected ranid frogs of Western Ghats, Kerala (Funded by KSCSTE, Govt. of Kerala- 2007-2010)
    7. Conservation genetics of Indirana frogs of Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot (Funded by DBT, Govt. of India, Collaborative research project with University of Helsinki, Finland- Collaborator; Dr. Juha Merilla- 2009-2012)
    8. Development of mtDNA database of selected mammals in the Kerala Forests for wildlife forensics (Funded by Kerala Forest Department, 2009-2012)

    Ongoing

    1. Biodiversity, DNA barcoding and Phylogeny of commercially valuable marine molluscs (Funded by DBT, Govt. of India – 2011-2014)
    2. Antimicrobial peptides from the skin secretion of fungoid frog Hylarana malabarica of Western Ghats, India- (Funded by KSCSTE, Govt. of Kerala, 2012-2015)
  • Publications

    1. David J. Holthausen, Song Hee Lee, Vineeth TV Kumar, Nicole M. Bouvier, Florian Krammer, Ali H. Ellebedy, Jens Wrammert, Anice C. Lowen, Sanil George, Madhavan Radhakrishna Pillai, Joshy Jacob. 2017. An Amphibian Host Defense Peptide Is Virucidal for Human H1 Hemagglutinin-Bearing Influenza Viruses. Immunity 46(4): 587–595.
    2. Vineethkumar T.V, Asha R, Shyla Gopal and Sanil George 2017. Studies on the mode of membrane interaction of C-terminally amidated Brevinin1 HYba1 2 peptides against bacteria. International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics. DOI: 10.1007/s10989-017-9598-0
    3. Kiran S Kumar, Anoop V.S, Sivakumar KC, Dinesh Raghunathan, Manoj P, Kaushik Deuti & Sanil George 2017. An additional record of Fejervarya manoharani Garg and Biju from the Western Ghats with a description of its complete mitochondrial genome. Zootaxa 4 https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.0000.0.0
    4. Alex M.D, Bijukumar A, Sureshkumar U and Sanil George 2016. Analysis of genetic variation in green chromid [Etroplus suratensis (Bloch)] (Pisces: Cichlidae) using microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA. Indian Journal of Biotechnology 15: 375-381.
    5. Anoop V S, Kiran S. Kumar, K. C. Sivakumar, Dinesh Reghunathan, P. Manoj, Kaushik Deuti, Sanil George 2017. The complete mitochondrial genome of Euphlyctis karaavali (Amphibia: Anura) with a note on its range expansion. Conservation Genet Resour. DOI 10.1007/s12686-017-0703-7
    6. Vineeth Kumar T.V, Asha R, Shyla G  and Sanil George 2017. Post-translationally modified frog skin- derived antimicrobial peptides are effective against Aeromonas sobria. Microbial pathogenesis 104: 287-288. DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2017.01.052
    7. Vineeth Kumar T.V, Asha R, Shyla G  and Sanil George 2017. Identification and characterization of novel Host Defense Peptides from the skin secretion of the fungoid frog, Hydrophylax bahuvistara (Anura: Ranidae).  Chemical Biology and drug Design DOI: 10.1111/cbdd.12937
    8. Kiran S Kumar, K C Sivakumar, Dinesh Reghunathan, Manoj P and Sanil George 2016. The complete mitochondrial genome of Indirana semipalmata (Amphibia: Anura)" Conservation Genetic resources. (DOI: 10.1007/s12686-016-0625-9).
    9. Paul Chinedu Echi, Sanil George and Suresh Kumar 2016. Differential size-biased parasitism between Polyacanthorhynchus nigerianus (nomen nudum) and Polyacanthorhynchus echiyensis (nomen nudum) (Acanthocephala: Polyacanthocephala). Brazilian Journal of Biological Sciences, 3(5), p. 113-119.
    10. David J Holthausen, Sanil George, and Joshy Jacob 2016. Amphibian innate immune mediators protect against human Influenza strains. J Immunol 196:63.7  
    11. Jonathan P. A. Gardner, Jamila Patterson, Sanil George and J. K. Patterson Edward 2016. Combined evidence indicates that Perna indica Kuriakose and Nair 1976 is Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) from the Oman region introduced into southern India more than 100 years ago.  Biol Invasions DOI 10.1007/s10530-016-1074-9
    12. Vineethkumar TV, Shyla Gopal and Sanil George, 2016. First report of Lividin and Spinulosain Peptides from the Skin Secretion of an Indian frog. Acta Biologica Hungarica 67 (1), 121-124  Doi: 10.1556/018.67.2016.1.10
    13. Jesmina A.S and George S. 2015. New distribution records for the critically endangered frog Indirana gundia(Dubois, 1986) from Kerala part of Western Ghats, India". Biodiversity Data Journal 3: e5825. doi: 10.3897/BDJ.3.e5825
    14. Parvin Abraham, Anand Sundaram, Asha R, Reshmy V, Sanil George, K.Santhosh Kumar 2015. Structure-Activity Relationship and Mode of Action of a Frog Secreted Antibacterial Peptide B1CTcu5 Using Synthetically and Modularly Modified or Deleted (SMMD) Peptides.  PLoS ONE 10(5): e0124210. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0124210
    15. Vineeth TV Kumar , David Holthausen , Joshy Jacob  and Sanil George 2015. Host Defense Peptides in Asian Frogs as Potential Clinical Therapies. Antibiotics, 4: 136-159; doi:10.3390/antibiotics4020136
    16. Bijukumar A, R. Smrithy 2, U. Sureshkumar 3 & S. George 2015. Invasion of South American suckermouth armoured catfishes Pterygoplichthys spp., (Loricariidae) in Kerala, India- a case study. Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(3): 6987–6995. (DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o4133.6987-95)
    17. Sujith V. Gopalan, Suresh U. Kumar, Kiran S. Kumar, and Sanil George. 2014. Genetic diversity of an endangered bush frog Pseudophilautus wynaadensis (Jerdon, 1854 ‘‘1853’’) from the south of Palghat gap, Western Ghats, India. Mitochondrial DNA, Early Online: 1–6. DOI: 10.3109/19401736.2014.958673
    18. Preetha R. Ravinesh R, Bijukumar A, Dhaneesh K.V and George S. 2014. First record of Granulifusus poppei (Mollusca: Fasciolariidae) from Indian coast. Marine Biodiversity Records, page 1 of 3. # Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 2014 doi:10.1017/S1755267214000992; Vol. 7; e95; 2014 Published online
    19. Parvin Abraham, Sanil George , K. Santhosh Kumar 2014. Novel antibacterial peptides from the skin secretion of the Indian bicoloured frog Clinotarsus curtipes Biochimie 97 (2014) 144-151.
    20. Echi P. C, Suresh K. U, George S, Ratheesh R. V, Vinitha M. R, Ejere V. C, Iyaji F. O. and Nnamonu E. I. 2013. Contribution towards the development of a DNA barcode reference library for West African mammals. African Journal of Biotechnology 12(48), 6704-6708.
    21. Bijukumar A, Kate l. Sanders, Sanil George & John C Murphy. 2012. The status of Eurostus dussumierii and Hypsirhina chinensis (Reptilia, Squamata, serpentens): with comments on the origin of salt tolerance in homolopsid snakes. Systematics and Biodiversity 10(4):479-489.
    22. Ramachandran K,Wilkinson M, Oommen V.O, George S, Nussbaum R.A and D.J. Gower 2012. On the systematics, distribution and conservation status of Ichthyophis longicephalus Pillai, 1986 (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Ichthyophiidae). Journal of Natural History 46 (47-48 2935-2959
    23. Suresh Kumar U, Ratheesh R.V, George Thomas and George S. 2012. Use of DNA Barcode Sequences in Wildlife Forensics - A Study of Sambar Deer. Journal of Forest Science and Technology 8(4): 224-226.
    24. Nair A, S. V. Gopalan, S. George, K. S. Kumar, A.G.F Teacher & J. Merilä 2012.Endemic indirana frogs of western Ghats biodiversity hotspots. Ann.Zool.Fennici 49 (5-6):257-286.
    25. Nair A, S. V. Gopalan, S. George, K. S. Kumar, Takahito Shikano & J. Merilä 2012. Genetic variation and differentiation in Indirana beddomii frogs endemic to the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot. Conservation Genetics 13(6): 1459-1467.
    26. Nair A, S. V. Gopalan, S. George, K. S. Kumar & J. Merilä 2012. Cross-species testing and utility of microsatellite loci in Indirana frogs. BMC Research Notes, 5:389
    27. Sujith V. Gopalan, Abhilash Nair, K. Santhosh Kumar, Juha Merilä, Sanil George. 2012. Morphology of Indirana semipalmata (Boulenger, 1882) (Amphibia;Anura) adults and tadpoles from the Western Ghats, India. Herpetology Notes 5: 263-273.
    28. K.U. Suresh, R.V. Ratheesh, R. Chungath, G. Thomas, S. George. 2012: Co-Inheritance Of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups And Lineages In 'Parayi Petta Panthirukulam': An Evaluation Of Human Motifs In A Popular Folktale In Kerala, India.. The Internet Journal of Biological Anthropology 5(1): 1-5.
    29. Nair A, S. V. Gopalan, S. George, K. S. Kumar, A. G. F. Teacher & J. Merilä 2012. High cryptic diversity of endemic Indirana frogs in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot. Animal Conservation 15:489-498.
    30. Bijukumar A, S.S. Jijith, U. Suresh Kumar & S. George. 2012. DNA barcoding of the Bryde's Whale Balaenoptera edeni Anderson (Cetacea: Balaenoptiidae) washed ashore Kerala coast, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 4(3): 2436-2443.
    31. Priya Thomas, T.V. Vineeth Kumar, V. Reshmy, K.S. Kumar and S. George. 2012. A Mini Review on the Antimicrobial Peptides Isolated from the Genus Hylarana (Amphibia:Anura) with a Proposed Nomenclature for Amphibian Skin Peptides. Molecular Biology Reports 39:6943-6947.
    32. Nair A, Daniel O, Sujith V.G, George S, Kumar K.S, Merilla J and Teacher A.G.F. 2011. Infectious disease screening of Indirana frogs from the Western ghats biodiversity hot spots. Herpetological review 2011. 42(4): 554-557. Extended abstract in Frog Log. 101,.66-67.
    33. Remya Raveendran, Sujith V. Gopalan, Sanil George. 2011. Twelve new microsatellite markers of Fejervarya keralensis, an endemic frog from Western Ghats, India. Biotechnol. Bioinf. Bioeng. 2011, 1(3):401-403
    34. Reshmy V, Preeji V, Parvin A, Santhoshkumar K and George S (2011). Three novel antimicrobial peptides from the skin of the Indian bronzed frog Hylarana temporalis (Anura: Ranidae). Journal of Peptide Science, 17: 342-347.
    35. Reshmy V, Kumar K.S and George S. 2011. Full Length cDNA derived Novel Peptides belonging to Esculentin Family from Skin of Indian Bronzed Frog Hylarana temporalis. Research Journal of Biotechnology 6 (1), 71-74.
    36. George S, Meenakshi K and Bijukumar A. 2011. Molecular taxonomy of marine mammals stranded along Kerala coast, India. Current Science, 100, (1), 117-120.
    37. Nair A, Kumar K.S, George S, Sujith V. G, Meng-Hua Li, Erica H. Leder & Juha Merila. 2011. Sixty-two new microsatellite markers for an endemic frog Indirana beddomii from the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot. Conservation Genetic Resourses, 3:167-171.
    1. Remya R, Gopalan S.V, Kumar K. S and George S. Species specific microsatellite markers: A tool for amphibian conservation genetics. Biodiversity: Utilization, Threats and Cultural Linkages, (Ed.) A. Biju Kumar, M.P. Nayar, R.V. Varma and C.K. Peethambaran. Narendra Publishing House New Delhi. 81-85. 2012.
    2. Sujith V. G, Remya R, K. S Kumar and George S. A note on the colourmorphism of Raorchestes akroparallagi from Western Ghats. Biodiversity: Utilization, Threats and Cultural Linkages, (Ed.) A. Biju Kumar, M.P. Nayar, R.V. Varma and C.K. Peethambaran. Narendra Publishing House, New Delhi. 153-158. 2012.
    3. George S, Preeji V and Reshmy V. Development of species specific microsatellite primers for five amphibian species of Western Ghats. Recent Advances in Biodiversity of India, Zoological Survey of India, 289-291. 2011
    4. George S, Sujith V.G and Meenakshi K. Identification of unknown tadpoles using DNA barcode sequences. Recent Advances in Biodiversity of India, Zoological Survey of India, 293-295, 2011
    1. George S. & Bijukumar A. 2011. Jeevane Thirichariayan Janithaka barcode (Malayalam). Vignjana Kairali, June 2011
    2. George S. 2011. DNA Barcodingum Vannyajeevikalum(Malayalam). Aaranyam 25, September 2011
    3. Bijukumar A and George S. 2011. Tags for living beings: the saga of DNA barcode. Science Reporter, January, 19-23
  • Team


    Dr. Shyla G, Verghese Kurian Young Scientist scheme, KSCSTE

    Transcriptome Profiling and functional analysis of frog skin derived host defense peptides

    Research on naturally expressing host defence peptides are now attaining momentum since they represent a viable and productive area for drug discovery. In highly competitive environment of the current pharmaceutical industry, natural HDPs provide a unique important element with functional and molecular diversity, which is crucial for drug discovery. Isolation of new AMPs and their structure-function studies may form the basis for the generation of new peptides or peptide analogues based drugs for the treatment of various diseases. My work is aimed to idenetify and characterize the host defence peptides derived from the skin secretion of the endemic frogs of Western Ghats, India. Peptides were identified through transcriptomic approach and the identified peptides will be characterized with various assays to evaluate their bilological activities and mode of action with a view to develop lead molecules for therapeutic applications.

    Dr.Shyla G
    Kiran S Kumar

    Dr. Shyla G, Verghese KurianYoung Scientist scheme, KSCSTE

    Transcriptome Profiling and functional analysis of frog skin derived host defense peptides

    Research on naturally expressing host defence peptides are now attaining momentum since they represent a viable and productive area for drug discovery. In highly competitive environment of the current pharmaceutical industry, natural HDPs provide a unique important element with functional and molecular diversity, which is crucial for drug discovery. Isolation of new AMPs and their structure-function studies may form the basis for the generation of new peptides or peptide analogues based drugs for the treatment of various diseases. My work is aimed to idenetify and characterize the host defence peptides derived from the skin secretion of the endemic frogs of Western Ghats, India. Peptides were identified through transcriptomic approach and the identified peptides will be characterized with various assays to evaluate their bilological activities and mode of action with a view to develop lead molecules for therapeutic applications.

    Vineeth Kumar T V, KSCSTE-SRF

    My research focuses on the isolation and characterization of host defense peptides (HDPs) from the skin secretion of an endemic frog from Western Ghats, India. Transcriptomic approach was used to isolate the peptides from skin secretion. Peptides thus obtained were synthesized and proceed with various assays to understand various biological activity in model systems and to elucidate their mode of action and further Characterization.

    Honours and Awards

    Best Paper and presentation Award: International Conference on Ecosystem Conservation, Climate Change and Sustainable Development (ECOCASD - Thiruvananthapuram, October 2013).

    Vineeth Kumar T V
    Vineeth Kumar T V

    Vineeth Kumar T V, KSCSTE-SRF

    My research focuses on the isolation and characterization of host defense peptides (HDPs) from the skin secretion of an endemic frog from Western Ghats, India. Transcriptomic approach was used to isolate the peptides from skin secretion. Peptides thus obtained were synthesized and proceed with various assays to understand various biological activity in model systems and to elucidate their mode of action and further Characterization.

    Honours and Awards

    Best Paper and presentation Award: International Conference on Ecosystem Conservation, Climate Change and Sustainable Development (ECOCASD - Thiruvananthapuram, October 2013).

    Kiran S Kumar, CSIR-JRF

    Understanding the genetic structure of an endemic species is a key point for its effective conservation. In order to determine the overall genetic structure of populations, it is necessary to know the level of both intra- and inter- population variation, and to understand the underlying processes driving this variation. The overall aim of my work is to investigate the genetic differentiation of the local endemic amphibian populations of Western Ghats.

    Kiran S Kumar
    Kiran S Kumar

    Kiran S Kumar, CSIR-JRF

    Understanding the genetic structure of an endemic species is a key point for its effective conservation. In order to determine the overall genetic structure of populations, it is necessary to know the level of both intra- and inter- population variation, and to understand the underlying processes driving this variation. The overall aim of my work is to investigate the genetic differentiation of the local endemic amphibian populations of Western Ghats.

    AnoopV.S, JRF

    My research mainly focus on the amphibian population genetics and conservation. To implement effective strategies for conservation on should clearly know how to identify a particular species and its population dispersal. Edible frogs are commonly found trough out our country since it plays and important role as an effective predator, especially in agriculture fields in Kerala. To know these frog population on a fine scale, it will be more useful in its conservation. Molecular taxonomy, despite to the conventional morphology based system of classification, is also to be addressed further.

    Anoop V S
    Kiran S Kumar

    AnoopV.S, JRF

    My research mainly focus on the amphibian population genetics and conservation. To implement effective strategies for conservation on should clearly know how to identify a particular species and its population dispersal. Edible frogs are commonly found trough out our country since it plays and important role as an effective predator, especially in agriculture fields in Kerala. To know these frog population on a fine scale, it will be more useful in its conservation. Molecular taxonomy, despite to the conventional morphology based system of classification, is also to be addressed further.

  • Alumni