Two-dose recommendation for Human Papillomavirus vaccine can be extended up to 18 years - updated evidence from Indian follow-up cohort study.

Papillomavirus Research  2019 Jan 31;7:75-81. Epub 2018 Oct 24. | https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pvr.2019.01.004  

Basu P, Muwonge R, Bhatla N, Nene BM, Joshi S, Esmy PO, Poli URR, Joshi G, Verma Y, Zomawia E, Shastri SS, Pimple S, Anantharaman D, Prabhu PR, Hingmire S, Sauvaget C, Lucas E, Pawlita M, Gheit T, Jayant K, Malvi SG, Siddiqi M, Michel A, Butt J, Sankaran S, Rameshwari Ammal Kannan TP, Varghese R, Divate U, Willhauck-Fleckenstein M, Waterboer T, Müller M, Sehr P, Vashist S, Mishra G, Jadhav R, Thorat R, Tommasino M, Pillai MR, Sankaranarayanan R; Indian HPV vaccine study group.

Earlier publication from the ongoing multi-centric study of the International Agency for Research on Cancer to evaluate less than three doses of the quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in India amongst unmarried girls demonstrated non-inferior total antibody titres, neutralizing antibody titres and antibody avidity in 2-dose recipients compared to 3-dose recipients at 15-18 years of age (Bhatla et al., 2018) [7]. The number of participants recruited at 15-18 years of age was 1515 and 1795 in the 3-dose and the 2-dose groups respectively. At a median follow-up of 7 years, incident HPV 16/18 infections were detected in 1.6% women receiving two doses and 0.8% women receiving three doses at 15-18 years. Frequency of incident infection was 7.0% in the age- and site-matched unvaccinated women (N=1484). No persistent infection from HPV 16 was observed in the 2- or 3-dose recipients and one (0.2%) persistent HPV 18 infection was documented, each in the 3-dose and 2-dose cohorts. Among the unvaccinated women, the frequency of HPV 16/18 persistent infection was 1.7%. The protection offered by two doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine against incident and persistent infections in recipients at 15-18 years is comparable to that seen in 3-dose recipients at 15-18 years.

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