Epigenetics as "conductor" in "orchestra" of pluripotent states

Cell and Tissue Research   15 July 2022 | https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-022-03667-0

Ishita Baral, Pallavi Chinnu Varghese, Debasree Dutta

ABSTRACT

Pluripotent character is described as the potency of cells to differentiate into all three germ layers. The best example to reinstate the term lies in the context of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Pluripotent ESC describes the in vitro status of those cells that originate during the complex process of embryogenesis. Pre-implantation to post-implantation development of embryo embrace cells with different levels of stemness. Currently, four states of pluripotency have been recognized, in the progressing order of "naÏve," "poised," "formative," and "primed." Epigenetics act as the "conductor" in this "orchestra" of transition in pluripotent states. With a distinguishable gene expression profile, these four states associate with different epigenetic signatures, sometimes distinct while otherwise overlapping. The present review focuses on how epigenetic factors, including DNA methylation, bivalent chromatin, chromatin remodelers, chromatin/nuclear architecture, and microRNA, could dictate pluripotent states and their transition among themselves.

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