Validation of reference gene stability for normalization of RT-qPCR in Phytophthora capsici Leonian during its interaction with Piper nigrum L

Scientific Reports   | 27 March 2024 |

Saranya Vijayakumar, Manjula Sakuntala


The selection of stable reference genes for the normalization of reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is generally overlooked despite being the crucial element in determining the accuracy of the relative expression of genes. In the present study, the stability of seven candidate reference genes: actin (act), α-tubulin (atub), β-tubulin (btub), translation elongation factor 1-α (ef1), elongation factor 2 (ef2), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (ubc) and 40S ribosomal protein S3A (ws21) in Phytophthora capsici has been validated. The validation was performed at six infection time points during its interaction with its susceptible host Piper nigrum, two developmental stages, and for the combined dataset. Four algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the ΔCt method were compared, and a comprehensive ranking order was produced using RefFinder. The overall analysis revealed that ef1, ws21, and ubc were identified as the three most stable genes in the combined dataset, ef1, ws21, and act were the most stable at the infection stages, and, ef1, btub, and ubc were most stable during the developmental stages. These findings were further corroborated by validating the P. capsici pathogenesis gene NPP1 expression. The findings are significant as this is the first study addressing the stability of reference genes for P. capsici-P. nigrum interaction studies.


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