Neurosurgical Focus 01 September 2021| doi.org/10.3171/2021.6.FOCUS21281
Bhanu Jayanand Sudhir MCh, Arun Gowda Keelara MS, Easwer Harihara Venkat MCh, Ken Kazumata MD, PhD, and Ananthalakshmy Sundararaman PhD
Moyamoya angiopathy (MMA) affects the distal internal carotid artery and is designated as moyamoya disease (MMD) when predisposing conditions are absent, or moyamoya syndrome (MMS) when it occurs secondary to other causes. The authors aimed to investigate the reason for this anatomical site predilection of MMA. There is compelling evidence to suggest that MMA is a phenomenon that occurs due to stereotyped mechanobiological processes. Literature regarding MMD and MMS was systematically reviewed to decipher a common pattern relating to the development of MMA.
A systematic review was conducted to understand the pathogenesis of MMA in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. PubMed MEDLINE and Scopus were searched using “moyamoya” and “pathogenesis” as common keywords and specific keywords related to six identified key factors. Additionally, a literature search was performed for MMS using “moyamoya” and “pathogenesis” combined with reported associations. A progressive search of the literature was also performed using the keywords “matrix metalloprotease,” “tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloprotease,” “endothelial cell,” “smooth muscle cell,” “cytokines,” “endothelin,” and “transforming growth factor” to infer the missing links in molecular pathogenesis of MMA. Studies conforming to the inclusion criteria were reviewed.
The literature search yielded 44 published articles on MMD by using keywords classified under the six key factors, namely arterial tortuosity, vascular angles, wall shear stress, molecular factors, blood rheology/viscosity, and blood vessel wall strength, and 477 published articles on MMS associations. Information obtained from 51 articles that matched the inclusion criteria and additional information derived from the progressive search mentioned above were used to connect the key factors to derive a network pattern of pathogenesis.
Based on the available literature, the authors have proposed a unifying theory for the pathogenesis of MMA. The moyamoya phenomenon appears to be the culmination of an interplay of vascular anatomy, hemodynamics, rheology, blood vessel wall strength, and a plethora of intricately linked mechanobiological molecular mediators that ultimately results in the mechanical process of occlusion of the blood vessel, stimulating angiogenesis and collateral blood supply in an attempt to perfuse the compromised brain.