Antimicrobial resistance and virulence in Helicobacter pylori: Genomic insights.

Genomics   01 October 2021| https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2021.10.002 

Mehrotra T1, Devi TB1, Kumar S1, Talukdar D1, Karmakar SP, Kothidar A, Verma J, Kumari S, Alexander SM, Retnakumar RJ, Devadas K, Ray A, Mutreja A, Nair GB, Chattopadhyay S*, Das B*
1Co-First authors. *Co-corresponding authors.

ABSTRACT

Microbes evolve rapidly by modifying their genome through mutations or acquisition of genetic elements. Antimicrobial resistance in Helicobacter pylori is increasingly prevalent in India. However, limited information is available about the genome of resistant H. pylori isolated from India. Our pan- and core-genome based analyses of 54 Indian H. pylori strains revealed plasticity of its genome. H. pylori is highly heterogenous both in terms of the genomic content and DNA sequence homology of ARGs and virulence factors. We observed that the H. pylori strains are clustered according to their geographical locations. The presence of point mutations in the ARGs and absence of acquired genetic elements linked with ARGs suggest target modifications are the primary mechanism of its antibiotic resistance. The findings of the present study would help in better understanding the emergence of drug-resistant H. pylori and controlling gastric disorders by advancing clinical guidance on selected treatment regimens.

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